African Journal of Parasitology, Mycology and Entomology

(ISSN: 1987-1473) Open Access Journal
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AJPME, Volume 1, Issue 1 (April 2023)
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1 Professor of parasitology and mycology at Cotonou University, President of the African Society of Parasitology and Mycology, Cotonou, Benin;
2 Professor of parasitology and mycology at Félix Houphouët Boigny University, Vice President of the African Society of Parasitology and Mycology, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AJPME 2023, 1(1), 7; doi: 10.35995/ajpme1010007
Received: 24 May 2023 / Revised: 13 Jun 2023 / Accepted: 13 Jun 2023 / Published: 12 Jul 2023
1 Malaria Research and Training Center (MRTC), University of Sciences of Techniques and Technologies of Bamako (USTTB), Bamako BP 1805, Mali; (M.B.T.); (H.D.); (M.K.); (B.K.); (M.D.S.); (B.T.); (B.B.); (A.D.); (K.K.)
2 Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Academic Medical Centre at the University of Amsterdam (AMC), Laboratory for Experimental Parasitology, Amsterdam Institute for Infection and Immunology, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (H.D.F.H.S.); (P.F.M.)
3 Centre of Competence for Methodology and Statistics (CCMS), Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), 1445 Strassen, Luxembourg;
* Corresponding author: ; Tel.: +223-66-96-96-98
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AJPME 2023, 1(1), 5; doi: 10.35995/ajpme1010005
Received: 10 Jan 2023 / Revised: 24 Apr 2023 / Accepted: 9 Jun 2023 / Published: 15 Jun 2023
Introduction: Severe anemia caused by severe malaria remains concentrated in children under 5 years old in Africa. In addition to blood-transfusion-related infections that pose a health concern, transfusion of severely anemic blood to a patient with severe anemia is another important concern. Method: Following the observation of a case of severe anemia in a blood donor, we conducted a secondary data analysis from a previous study to assess the frequency of anemia in blood donors in San, Mali. Results: In total, out of 140 volunteers, 13 (9%, 95% CI: 5.43–15.41) blood donors had moderate to severe anemia, based on Mali hemoglobin (Hb) normal values (10.5–16.5 g/dL, MRTC-GLP laboratory). In particular, we observed one case of severe anemia with an Hb level of 6.5 g/dL. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of severe anemia in blood donors in a malaria endemic area in Mali. Full article
1 Malaria Research and Training Center, Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, FMOS-FAPH, USTTB, Bamako PB1805, Mali; (B.F.); (A.O.)
2 Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA;
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AJPME 2023, 1(1), 6; doi: 10.35995/ajpme1010006
Received: 19 Jan 2023 / Revised: 20 May 2023 / Accepted: 12 Jun 2023 / Published: 15 Jun 2023
Introduction: Malaria is one of the strongest known forces of evolutionary selection in the recent history of the human genome, having had important implications in human adaptation and in the response to its infections. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an update on human genetics that have been described as affecting the human susceptibility to malaria around the world and particularly in Africa. Methods: Through world wide web research vectors and using PubMed and Google Scholar, we reviewed relevant original articles, review papers, short reports, and peer-reviewed papers on human genetics factors described as related to human susceptibility to malaria. Here, we reviewed the literature on human genetic polymorphisms associated with protection from Plasmodium infections and/or disease. Results: After reviewing and summarizing 140 manuscripts, we found that several factors appeared to hamper an effective control of malaria, including the complex biology of Plasmodium parasites, parasite genetic diversity, environmental factors, resistance to antimalarial drugs, and the lack of a highly effective vaccine for public health use. Although the cellular and molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of disease are still not fully understood, it is well-established that genetic determinants of the host play an important role in the outcome of infection and the severity of the disease. Conclusions: The interaction between malaria parasites and humans has led to the selection of several inherited traits conferring protection against malaria, such as hemoglobinopathies, enzymopathies, and immunogenetic variation, whilst others’ polymorphism describes susceptibility to the infection. Full article
1 Service of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology, Cheikh Anta Diop University, BO 3005, Dakar, Senegal
2 Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital, BO 3001, Dakar, Senegal
3 Centre International de Recherche et de Formation en Génomique Appliquée, et de Surveillance Sanitaire (CIGASS), Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar, BO 16477, Dakar, Senegal
4 Department of Parasitology-Mycology-Animal Biology-Zoology, UFR Sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Felix Houphouët-Boigny University, BO V34, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
5 Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, National institute of Public Health, BO V34, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
6 Laboratory of the « Mère et Enfant » Hospital Center, BO 40028, Nouakchott, Mauritania
7 UFR 2S, Assane Seck University of Ziguinchor, BO 523 Ziguinchor, Senegal
* Corresponding author: ; Phone: +221 77 437 04 61
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AJPME 2023, 1(1), 4; doi: 10.35995/ajpme1010004
Received: 31 Dec 2022 / Revised: 3 Apr 2023 / Accepted: 15 May 2023 / Published: 13 Jun 2023
Introduction. Due to the lack of systemic antifungals (SAs), many invasive fungal infections (IFIs) do not yet benefit from effective treatment in Africa. Yet, fungi are a major threat to human health. This study aimed to assess the availability of SAs and compare this availability between West Africa (WA) and North Africa (NA). Materials and methods. The information processed was obtained during the same period between February and June 2021 in Senegal, Mauritania, and Côte d’Ivoire as well as in Morocco and Tunisia. In WA, data were received from wholesale drug suppliers and private pharmacies while in NA, the data were those available on the websites of the pharmacy and drug directorates. Results. All classes of SAs were available. However, this availability was not uniform depending on location, whether in WA or NA. Fluconazole and itraconazole were the only SA available in WA. In NA, all classes of SAs have been found, particularly in Morocco, while flucytosine was the only molecule absent in Tunisia. Conclusion. NA is ahead of WA as regards the burden of IFIs both diagnostically and in the availability of SAs. Studies on the epidemiology of IFIs in Africa, particularly in WA, are limited. The partial data available highlight that IFIs are not negligible, though these may be underestimated. Thus, a network based on the directory of African pharmacy and drug directorates must be set up and run in collaboration with the national laboratory directorates for the harmonization of procedures in order to reduce morbidity and mortality related to IFIs. Full article
1 Department of Parasitology-Mycology-Tropical Medicine, Faculté de Médecine de l’Université des Sciences de la Santé, Libreville 4009, Gabon
* Corresponding author: ; Tel.: +24174122125
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AJPME 2023, 1(1), 3; doi: 10.35995/ajpme1010003
Received: 15 Sep 2022 / Revised: 27 Mar 2023 / Accepted: 17 May 2023 / Published: 12 Jun 2023
Introduction: Blastocystis sp. is an intestinal protozoan that is commonly reported, but whose clinical significance remains controversial. Clinical forms of this infection range from asymptomatic carriage to clinical signs, specifically gastrointestinal ones. There is a lack of data on the epidemiology of this protist in Gabon. This study was carried out to provide data on the frequency of Blastocystis sp. infection and its association with clinical signs and the haemoglobin rate. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2018 and November 2019. Stool samples were collected in five of the nine provinces of Gabon from children and adults. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded using a standardised pre-tested questionnaire. Haematological parameters and temperature were reported in a laboratory register. Parasitological diagnosis was performed using stool direct examination and a Merthiolate-Iodine-Formaldehyde (M.I.F) concentration to detect Blastocystis sp. Results: In total, 843 participants were interviewed and examined; 414 brought back stool samples. The frequency of Blastocystis sp. infection was 45.2% (n = 187/414), and it increased with age: from 20.0% in young children to 49.5% in adults (P = 0.0057). Being a male (P = 0.08) tended to be associated with Blastocystis sp. carriage. In the multivariate logistic regression, only males were associated with Blastocystis sp. infection and had a 4.3-fold higher risk of being infected than females did (adjusted odds ratio = 4.3; 95% CI = 1.2–15.6; P = 0.03). Diarrhoea, abdominal pain and colitis were observed in some patients with Blastocystis sp. monoinfection. No relation between Blastocystis sp. carriage and anaemia was found. Conclusion: The frequency of Blastocystis sp. infection was high. Males were more at risk of being infected. Blastocystis sp. could be used as indicator in the improvement of environmental sanitation and hygiene, coupled with improved housing. Additional investigations in a population with clinical symptoms should be performed. Full article
1 Regional University Hospital Center of Ouahigouya, 01 Post Box 36, Ouahigouya 01, Burkina Faso
2 Nazi Boni University, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; (R.W.V.K.); (D.N.); (S.N.D.); (S.B.)
3 Muraz Center /Institut National de Santé Publique, 01 Post Box 390, Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso
4 Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro, Institute for Research in Health Sciences, National Center for Scientific and Technological Research, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso;
5 Sourô Sanou University Hospital Center, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso;
6 Department of Microbiology, CHU Namur site-Godinne, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; (O.D.); (I.M.)
7 Ecole de Santé Publique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
8 Department of Microbiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium;
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AJPME 2023, 1(1), 1; doi: 10.35995/ajpme1010001
Received: 24 Aug 2022 / Revised: 6 Oct 2022 / Accepted: 20 Oct 2022 / Published: 7 Apr 2023
Introduction: Microbial bioaerosols in indoor hospital air are one of the main potential sources of nosocomial infections. This study aimed to assess the composition of fungal bioaerosols in the indoor air of the Sourô Sanou University Hospital Center (SSUHC) in Burkina Faso. Methods: This study was carried out in two departments of the SSUHC. The indoor air sampling was carried out from August to December 2019. Sample collection was performed using the passive sedimentation method and incubated at 30 °C for 48 to 96 h. A total of 267 samples were analysed. Fungal identification was conducted based on the macroscopic and microscopic features of fungi. Results: Of the 267 samples analysed, 369 isolates belonging to 12 genera were identified. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungal agent with 64%, followed by Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. with 19.5% and 5.7%, respectively. Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., and Rhizomucor spp. accounted for 2.7%, 2.7%, and 1.9%, respectively. Among the genus Aspergillus spp., the most frequently isolated was A. niger (34.3%), followed by A. flavus (30.9%) and A. fumigatus (19.9%). Conclusions: This study showed that Aspergillus spp. is the most common fungal bioaerosol isolated in the indoor air of the SSUHC in Burkina Faso. Full article
1 Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Lomé, Boulevard Eyadema, Lomé 01BP 1515, Togo; (A.M.M.); (M.P.D.)
2 Division des Laboratoires du Ministère de la Santé, de l’Hygiène Publique et de l’Accès Universel aux Soins, 374, Avenue Georges Pompidou, Lomé 01BP 1161, Togo
3 Institut National d’Hygiène du Togo, 1, Rue Nangbéto, Quartier Administratif, Lomé 01BP 1396, Togo;
4 Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Biologiques et Alimentaires, Université de Lomé, Boulevard Eyadema, Lomé 01BP 1515, Togo; ,
5 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sylvanus Olympio, 198, Rue de l’Hôpital, Lomé 01BP 57, Togo;
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AJPME 2023, 1(1), 2; doi: 10.35995/ajpme1010002
Received: 28 Aug 2022 / Revised: 4 Nov 2022 / Accepted: 12 Jan 2023 / Published: 7 Apr 2023
Background: Vulvovaginal infections are common in women. In Togo’s medical biology laboratories, routine diagnosis is often limited to filamentation testing, and the identification of fungal species is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to update the spectrum of Candida species isolated in vulvovaginitis and to determine their antifungal susceptibility profiles. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in women presenting leukorrhea received in two public laboratories in Lomé from June 2015 to October 2015. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected through a structured questionnaire during an individual interview. Vulvovaginal samples were cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. Identification of fungi was determined by filamentation test and API 20C AUX® gallery. The antifungal susceptibility profile was performed on five antifungal agents by a semi-solid medium microdilution technique of the ATB Fungus 3® gallery. Results: Candida albicans/dubliniensis/africana complex was isolated in 51.6% of cases by API 20C AUX® gallery. The same species were isolated by filamentation test in 12.3% of cases. All Candida species identified were sensitive to Voriconazole, whereas four species including Candida albicans/dubliniensis/africana complex had variable sensitivities compared to the five antifungal agents tested. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a high distribution of non-albicans species of Candida in Togo. Empirical treatment of candidiasis could contribute to increasing antifungal resistance. Routine fungi identification, at least by using an auxanogram test, could be instituted in medical laboratories to improve the therapeutic management of these diseases. Full article
1 Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
2 Malaria Research and Control Center, National Institute of Public Health, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
3 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences Training and Research Unit, University of Cocody, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
4 Malaria Research Program, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Heath, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
* Corresponding author: ; Tel.: +225-07-09-31-22-90
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AJPME 2023, 1(1), 8; doi: 10.35995/ajpme1010008
Received: 27 Jun 2023 / Revised: 6 Jul 2023 / Accepted: 12 Jul 2023 / Published: 9 Mar 2023
Introduction: The onset of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) resistance to antimalarial drugs requires the careful surveillance of African parasite populations. Genomic tools are implemented to detect evolutionary changes that could impact malaria control and elimination strategies. Here, we evaluate the genome-wide pattern of selection and sequence variation in P. falciparum populations in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Methods: The study was conducted in three localities of Abidjan from 2013 to 2014. We collected 70 blood samples after receiving written informed consent from patients above two years of age. After extracting P. falciparum and human DNA from isolates, we performed whole-genome sequencing and used population genomics approaches to investigate the genetic diversity and complexity of infections and identify loci under positive directional selection. Results: We observed an excess of rare variants in the population, showing a clear mutation process in the isolates. Moderate Fst estimates (0.3) was detected for surfin, an immune invasion gene family. Seven iHS regions that had at least two SNPs with a score > 3.2 were identified. These regions code for genes that have been under strong directional selection. Two of these genes were the chloroquine resistance transporter (crt) on chromosome 7 and the dihydropteroate reductase (dhps) on chromosome 8. Our analyses showed that a recent selective sweep occurred for the erythrocyte membrane protein (Pfemp1). Conclusion: Our analyses identified genes under selective drug pressure and balancing selection on protective immune-specific genes. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of genomics analyses to follow the evolution of malaria parasites and adopt appropriate strategies to eliminate malaria in Côte d’Ivoire. Full article

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